„PORADNIK JĘZYKOWY”

KOLEGIUM REDAKCYJNE RADA REDAKCYJNA HISTORIA PORADNIKA ZAWARTOŚĆ PISMA W LATACH 1901- 2000
NUMERY BIEŻĄCE INFORMACJE DLA AUTORÓW SPRZEDAŻ I PRENUMERATA KONTAKT POWRÓT

Rok 2010, zeszyt dziewiąty

SPIS TREŚCI

ARTYKUŁY I ROZPRAWY

OBJAŚNIENIA WYRAZÓW I ZWROTÓW

RECENZJE

BIBLIOGRAFIA



CONTENTS

ARTICLES AND DISSERTATIONS

EXPLANATIONS OF WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

REVIEWS

BIBLIOGRAPHY



How Polish Language Users Think and Speak of Experiencing Physical Pain

Summary

The article presents the picture of pain on the basis of analysis of numerous constructions with a lexem ból [pain], derived from dictionaries of contemporary Polish and from Korpus Języka Polskiego Wydawnictwa Naukowego PWN.
The greatest attention was paid to metonymies and conceptual metaphors, with the help of which Polish language users think and speak of physical pain: the way they understand experiencing this type of pain, what they compare it with, what kind of notion models they recall. Facing pain - physical suffering - is showed in the following aspects (profiles): 1) act/process of pain; 2) actions of pain - subject; 3) facing pain by the subject; 4) the subject's actions to reduce, get rid of pain; 5) means used by the subject to reduce pain; 6) location, locator of pain. In the last part of the article, the author sketches the research perspectives on the issue of pain in comparative aspect. Trans. A. Gierba

Conventional Use of Color Names in Everyday Language and Literary Polish Language

Summary

We have to do with the conventional use of names of colors when the attribute of a referent is not consistent with the reality or arouses some semantic doubts. The inconsistency with the actual fact results from the simplification of the world image through contrastive combination of color names: black and white man, white and red wine. It can also be the result of literary convention: purple or coral-red lips (when talking about lips without lipstick). Semantic doubts arouse in names formed from referents present in different colors: nut-brown, hazel eyes, olive complexion, olive dress.
Trans. A. Gierba

The Gradation Type: good - pretty good - not bad - not the best - bad

Summary

In Polish there is a possibility to form many degrees of intensity of adjectives and adverbs. Such a phenomenon does not exist in Occidental Indo-European languages. The synthetic forms of intensity mean that the semantic features are of medium intensity on the segment pointed out by an adjective and its antonym. The aim of this paper is to discover the rules of the use of different medium-intensity forms. We have established that it depends on the following elements: existence of a synthetic form of the comparative degree, possibility to define the adjective/adverb through the formula "more than average", existence or non-existence of the limit of intensity and - finally - linguistic usage.
Adj. A. Gierba

An Obituary as a Speech Macroact

Summary
Today's press obituaries are a subject to many considerations: sociological, cultural and lingusitic. It is worth to take a closer look at this genre from the point of view of pragmalinguistics and answer the questions: what functions an obituary performs, whether it registers into research trend on speech macroacts. The article is only a contribution to more extensive study. The analysis of texts from "Gazeta Wyborcza" leads to the conclusion that an obituary is a multipurpose and diverse text and its meaning and functions are dependent on the author's aim. Moreover, in the context of speech acts theory, an obituary should be treated as a macroact that unites a number of indirect and direct microacts. The act of ascertainment is dominant, leaving on the background such microacts as: empathy, greatfulness, farewell, request, identification and characteristics of a dead person, addressees and senders of obituaries, assurance of the eternal memory and honorific acts.
It is also worth emphasising that major microacts correspond to the names of obituary types, e.g. an obituary - greatfulness (the act of gratefulness), an obituary farewell (the act of farewell), an obituary of condolence (the act of emapthy).
Trans. A. Gierba

Orthodox Priest or Priest? Problems of Contemporary Characterization in Traditional Names of an Orthodox Clergyman

Summary

The author considers the issue of contemporary characterization in traditional names of an Orthodox clergyman pop [Orthodox priest]. This word in Old Polish meant priest in general, but with the time being, it started to be a term used to describe only Orthodox and Uniate clergymen and such a meaning is desrcibed in contemporary dictionaries of Polish language. However, in Orthodox community it passes as a disparaging and even offensive one. The proofs are: ministers' statements available on websites, the ways of believers addressing the clergymen, Orthodox people's statements on the Internet fora and the analysis of the material from the greatest Orthodox journal "Przegląd Prawosławny" [The Orthodox Review]. The following situation developed only in 20th century, yet already in Old polish some negative connotations of the word pop were mentioned. A lot of contemporary dictionaries passes over the issue of marking the words, more information is provided by encyclopedia publications. They are however discrepant - a word is presented as neutral, colloquial, partly archaic, finally having an expressive value, the last register being hard to reach. Much evidence suggests that the language users are confused as to the appropriateness of this word and the awareness of pragmatic consequences of using this word towards Orthodox people is not common. Hence the postulate of the practice to enrich dictionaries with the information on "improper" value of the word pop and other similar words.
Trans. A. Gierba

Linguistic Exponents of Expressiveness and Humour at the Example of a Columnist - Henryk Martenka

Summary

The author of the article discusses the aspects connected with the phenomenon of humour, its origin and the factors that enable its understanding and interpretation. As everybody knows, humour has a relational character and originates in the circumstances of a peculiar tension between the subject and the object. Language humour comes into being as a result of a conscious or spontaneous usage of all grammatical, stylistic and lexical phenomenons in order to evoke a humorous effect. The different aspect of these considerations is a phenomenon of expressiveness in a language. The expressive marking of a linguistic sign is situated in the elements of redundancy or is contrasted with object and logical occurrences and intellectual values. Mostly, however, one can spot this very expressive element in the field of connotation understood as a whole range of lexical elements. The ongoing considerations were illustrated by a lingusitic material (press articles and columns) from a weekly "Angora". Henryk Martenka's columns deserve an extensive discussion on account of richness of humorous word forms which stigmatize current economic and political events and show paradoxes of some situations and behaviors. In his columns, full of expression and humour, Martenka resorts to linguistic and comic means which are a part of wider contexts. The analyzed material shows a great lexical richness and density or stylistic structures characterized by emotions (irony) which serve to express disapproval. The use of grotesque and parody stylization means and a kind of stylistic dissonance are frequent comic stimula which make Martenka's statements attractive to a potential addressee.
Trans. A. Gierba